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Intelligent A-Z words every PR and Marketing pro should know

Power words and definitions matter 

Intelligent A-Z words PR pros should know


PR and Advertising pros should have a powerful way with words, like no other. Knowledge leads to confidence and better execution. Here’s a comprehensive A-Z dictionary of key terms and concepts for PR and business professionals.

Your A-Z PR and Marketing dictionary 

Advertising cost equivalent (ACE) 

Definition: How much would this editorial piece cost if it had been paid-for advertising? ACE or advertising cost equivalent or advertising value equivalent (AVE) is sometimes used to give PR a monetary value.

Advertising vs PR

Definition: Advertising is a tactic that involves paying for space – be it on billboards, social media, or on the radio- to promote a product, service, cause, or brand.

The difference between advertising and PR is that the former is a paid space while the results in public relations are earned through providing the media with information and getting coverage “organically”.


Definition: The focus used when writing a story that will be presented to the media. The story’s perspective is usually determined by the publication type, the audience, goals you want to achieve and the channel.


Definition: Short for Business to Business. B2B is a business model based on companies selling their services and products to other companies, rather than the general public/consumers.


Definition: Business to Consumer (B2C) is a business model in which a company sells products and services to a consumer.


Definition: To put it simply, a backlink is a link from one website to another. Why are they important? Search engines, such as Google, use backlinks as a way to rank websites.

If many outlets link back to your website, Google believes your content is newsworthy and will rank you higher. If these backlinks come from high-quality pages, this will increase your domain authority, and therefore has a positive effect on your visibility in search engine results.


Definition: BHAG stands for Big Hairy Audacious Goal. It is a clear and compelling mission statement that serves as a unifying focal point for an organization. It can seem like an over-the-top, long-term mission statement but placing it at the center of your actions can guide you and your team towards a finish line.


Definition: A boilerplate is a section at the end of your press release that includes your company information. Not everyone is familiar with your brand or organization, therefore it’s important to include a short description of what you do and what sets you apart. Many organizations include metric information such as number of customers, employees, and capital raised. Others include their one-sentence mission, or awards and recognitions they’ve gathered in their trajectory.


Definition: A brand is an identifying symbol, logo, name, word, tagline, or set of features that companies use to distinguish their products from others. This term can also refer to the experience a person has when interacting with a business or product.

Brand activism

Definition: Brand activism is the act of taking a stand to help drive change in social, political, economic, and/or environmental issues that society faces. Brands may choose to support these causes through statements of solidarity or pledges of action.

Brand ambassador

Definition: A brand ambassador is a person who represents a brand because their interests, lifestyle, or personality match up with the brand’s values. The goal of choosing a brand ambassador to be the face of a brand is to increase brand awareness and eventually, increase sales.

Brand archetype

Definition: Archetypes are a categorization of traits and characteristics that are intrinsic to human nature and remain consistent over time. In branding, archetypes can be used to reflect the personality of your brand and engage with specific consumer personas. There are twelve brand archetypes: The Innocent, Everyman, Hero, Outlaw, Explorer, Creator, Ruler, Magician, Lover, Caregiver, Jester, and Sage.


When we talk about the Magician archetype, we immediately think of Disney. When it comes to the motivation of the Magician, these brands want to make your dreams come to life and create something special and informative. From the fairytale movies to the fantasy-filled theme parks, the brand is all about bringing magic to our ordinary lives.

Brand awareness

Definition: Brand awareness refers to the extent to which consumers are aware – or  recognize –  a particular product or service. This marketing term can also be defined as a goal, through which a company seeks to increase their exposure in order to be recognized by its target audience.

Brand consistency

Definition: Brand consistency is the way in which a brand delivers their messages in line with their values, visual identity and strategy, across channels and over time. Brand consistency fosters brand awareness and trust.

Brand journalism

Definition: Brand journalism is a tactic that implies bypassing traditional media outlets (and PR firms for that matter) and conveying your brand’s story using journalism-style writing. This technique is rooted in the belief that consumers are wary of advertising or marketing copy – and tend to stay away from anything that doesn’t sound authentic. Also, as brands become more complex, it is ill-advised to rely on a sole channel to tell a story. Through this tactic, brands acknowledge the importance of elaborating engaging narratives and delivering them through multiple channels and platforms in order to showcase the organization’s value from a different angle.

Brand promise

Definition: A brand promise refers to the values customers can expect from a company when they interact with that company.It’s the corner-stone of your brand, since your customers trust you to keep that promise.


Definition: Bridging is a technique used during interviews which allows the interviewee to steer away from negative questions or unfavorable conversation back to their key messages. It is important that a spokesperson acknowledges the reporter’s question before transitioning or bridging back to their messages.

Buyer’s journey

Intelligent A-Z words PR pros should know

Definition: The term buyer’s journey is used to describe the process consumers go through as they research a product or service before making a final purchase decision.

This process typically has three steps:

  • Awareness: The beginning of this process is marked by a prospect experiencing a problem.
  • Consideration: Once the problem has been identified, the prospect begins to research potential solutions to this problem.
  • Decision: The final stage consists of prospects identifying a solution to the problem they experience and are close to making a purchasing decision.

Case study

Definition: A case study is a detailed, in-depth examination of work a company has completed for a client that emphasizes the objectives, processes, solutions applied and results achieved.


Intelligent A-Z words PR pros should know

Definition: Media clippings are the mentions of your brand in newspapers, blog posts, podcasts, magazines, television, and online media. The name comes from the act of cutting out these mentions in published media to put together a report for clients. These days, this coverage is no longer physically clipped from media and instead is monitored through different tools and software.

Communication Strategy

Definition: A communication strategy is a written plan that allows you and your team to effectively accomplish specific objectives by determining key aspects of communication. Essentially, it outlines what you talk about, how you talk, who you should talk to and where you find that audience.

Content Marketing or Content Creation

Definition: Content marketing or creation is a marketing strategy based on creating relevant and valuable content to attract and retain an audience (ideally organic; through search engines), to ultimately, drive engagement and achieve profitable customer action.


Definition: Copywriting refers to the production of text for persuasive purposes like advertising, websites, social media channels, etc.


Definition: The sum of your clippings. A space in news publications such as an article, blog post, or story that mentions your brand.


Definition: CMS stands for Content Management System, which is software that allows users to modify, manage and publish content on a website or blog, without having to write code.


Definition: A CRM allows you to organize and manage your contacts and their information. It helps you get a better overview of all your contacts, and more importantly, keeps them in your organization if your colleague leaves the company or your computer crashes.

Crisis Communications/Crisis Management

Intelligent A-Z words PR pros should know

Definition: The process through which an organization handles unpredictable events while protecting a brand’s reputation. As opposed to risk management, crisis communications or management deals with events that have already occurred. PR has an important role to play in crisis management as its practice revolves around mediating between different publics and stakeholders.

Corporate communications

Definition: Corporate communications consists of the set of activities a company orchestrates in order to reach internal audiences (such as employees and board members) and external publics (like customers, competitors, and government) in order to achieve a favourable image.

Corporate blogging

Definition: Corporate blogging is a marketing tactic through which companies create content based on industry news, expert tips and company news in order to engage their target audience. This space can also provide a forum for company leaders to establish themselves as thought leaders as they discuss topics that are deemed interesting by customers.

Dark Social

Definition: Dark social describes the “invisible” or unmeasurable shares that occur through channels like messengers, email, and text. This referral system does not allow marketers to understand where the traffic actually comes from, since it will only appear as “direct” traffic to them.

The term was introduced by Alexis Madrigal in 2012,  who explained that instant messaging apps and email can make a marketer’s job harder because the traffic source becomes untraceable. Studies reveal that around 80% of content sharing on social media happens via dark social.


Definition: Disruptors are rocking the boat. They’re mixing things up, breaking the rules, and riding motorcycles with aviator sunglasses. They’re the game changers, releasing a new product or service whose unique innovation throws the status quo into a tizzy. Uber is an easy example of a market disruptor, changing the taxi and car pickup landscape. It’s fine if someone refers to you as a disruptor, but don’t be the first to refer to yourself as one.

Editorial Calendar

Definition: An editorial calendar is a visual roadmap for PR and communications teams to schedule their content on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis. This calendar can guide teams when it comes to both traditional PR such as press releases, events, interviews, and also online content such as social media posts, blog posts, podcasting, etc.

Earned Media

Definition: Based on Gini Dietrich’s PESO model (a classic!) earned media is the space in the media where your brand is mentioned, without having to pay for it or create it yourself. In other words, it’s having a newspaper write about you, a talk show mentioning you, a podcast featuring your story, etc. In this case, both parties win: the press gets valuable insights or content for a new article, and you might land a press mention. You might also know this term as media relations.

Electronic Press Kit (EPK)

Definition: EPKs are used in the music industry. An electronic press kit is a digital downloadable collection of asset that includes basic information about you or your band. They often include high resolution images, videos, music clips and other resources. This tool allows you to make a long lasting impression on labels, agents, promoters, venues and journalists.

Think of your EPK as your digital resume that will make it easier for music and art industry professionals to really understand who you are, what makes your sounds different and why you should take center stage at a next festival.


Definition: A news embargo or press embargo is a request that the information provided not be published before a specific date or until certain conditions have been met. Unlike ‘off the record’ information, embargoed press releases are intended to be published after a certain date.

External communication

Definition: External communication refers to the variety of techniques used by an organization to reach audiences that are not closely related to the organization but still affect it. These audiences include customers, media, suppliers, governments, industry leaders, competitors, among others. The goal of external communication is to achieve a favorable image and strengthen relationships with strategic audiences.


Definition: Findability is a term that refers to the degree of accessibility to information. It relates  to how easily your information is found, both from outside a website and also by users already on a website.

Journalists report that they are actively searching for news instead of writing about the pitches that flood their inbox. Therefore, PR professionals should focus on simplifying the process of discovery when it comes to your brand’s news.


Definition:  The flywheel is a growth model proposed by Hubspot which shows the momentum an organization can gain through aligning every action towards creating a memorable experience. This model depicts the inbound marketing method as three separate phases: attract, delight and engage. The difference between the flywheel and a funnel is that the flywheel model focuses on growing your company with the help of your own customers as accelerants. A funnel on the other hand, places customers as an output or end goal.


A pricing strategy in which the basic version of a service or product is offered free of charge. Extra features and functionality requires free users to upgrade to paid versions. There are plenty of great examples of freemium products in the marketing  world – HootSuite, WordPress, Buffer, and MailChimp to name a few.

Growth hacking

Definition: Growth hacking refers to the hacking strategies used by businesses to grow in a short period of time and with a limited budget. The term was coined in 2010 by Sean Ellis, founder and CEO of GrowthHackers. Growth hackers aspire to acquire as many users or customers as possible while spending as little as possible.

Inbound PR

Definition: Inbound PR is a new perspective on how PR is carried out, and is a counter-message to traditional outbound PR. It combines PR’s core strength in terms of content creation and marketing’s strategic execution, including numbers and measurement. The ultimate goal in inbound PR is to build a network of journalists that have found you, instead of intrusively pitching journalists with whom you don’t have a relationship yet.

In-house PR

Definition: In-house public relations refers to a team or department that carry out functions and activities pertaining to public relations as a part of the organization.  Contrary to an in-house team is a PR agency which is independent from the organization.

Influencer marketing

Definition: Influencer marketing refers to a marketing tactic which uses endorsements and product mentions from influencers to create awareness and increase sales. Influencers are individuals who have amassed a large social following and are considered experts within their own niche.

This tactic is based on the idea that if influencers have built up enough trust in their communities, then a recommendation from them can serve as social proof to your brand’s potential customers.

Internal communication

Definition: Internal communication consists of a wide range of activities and tactics used by an organization to reach audiences inside the organization, such as employees, board members, management and shareholders. The purpose of internal communication is to maintain a flow of information among the people within an organization and push them towards achieving a common goal. Its effect on external communications is often underestimated; happy, well informed employees are a superpower for brand and product awareness.

Investor relations

Definition: According to the Institute for PR, investor relations is defined as “a strategic management responsibility that integrates finance, communication, marketing and securities law compliance to enable the most effective two-way communication between a company, the financial community, and other constituencies, which ultimately contributes to a company’s securities achieving fair valuation”.

Unlike most PR practices, this sub-discipline must be integrated with an organization’s financial team, legal department, and top executives. In this field of public relations, there are stricter regulatory requirements mandated by governments.


Definition: KPI stands for Key Performance Indicator which refers to a measurable value that indicates and demonstrates how effectively a department or company is hitting their primary objectives.

Lag measures

Definition: Lag measures track the success of your objective, or your most important goal. You cannot influence lags directly. Lags are measures you spend time losing sleep over. They are things like revenue, profit, brand awareness, and customer satisfaction. They are called lag measures, because by the time you see them increase or decrease, that what drove the change is already passed. You can’t do anything to fix them, they are history.

Lead measures

Definition: Lead measures track the critical activities that drive (or lead) to the lag measure. They predict the success of the lag measure. The big difference with lag measures is that lead measures are directly influenced by your team: they are things like new contacts, news announcements sent out, completed campaigns. It’s very important to focus on lead measures you can directly influence.

Lag measures are often easier to measure, and they represent the result we ultimately want, but without executing on lead measures they will bear nothing but frustration.


Definition: Localization is the process of adapting a product or content to a specific location or market.

Low Hanging Fruit 

The easy wins you have to grab. Sometimes you want to snatch that perfect apple at the top of the tree because you’re all about shooting for the stars. However, you can’t neglect the obvious, albeit sometimes unchallenging, options

Media database

Definition: A media database is an organized directory of media contacts – be it journalists, influencers, bloggers, and media outlets, which allows communications professionals to find the right people when seeking earned media coverage.

There are many services that offer media databases. We argue that the most efficient databases that will allow you to reach your target audience are the ones you build yourself. You don’t need a big budget in order to do so, either.

Media days

Definition: A media day refers to an event organized by a brand where journalists, bloggers, and influencers are invited to view a new collection or product. This PR event offers the media a first, exclusive look at what will be launched in order to create buzz around the new product.

Media exposure

Definition: Media exposure quantifies the amount of attention that television, radio, online media, social media and newspapers or outlets give to a specific story.

Media inquiries

Definition: A media inquiry refers to a request by the media for additional information or an interview.

Media kit

Definition: A media kit is a folder full of downloadable assets that supplement a story. This is mostly photos, but can also include things like videos, data visualisations, and technical specifications. Media kits should make a journalist want to write a story about you- because you’ve given them so many quality assets, that they’d be crazy not to. It should be publicly available in your online newsroom. What makes a good media kit? Here are a few examples.

Media value

Definition: Media value quantifies the monetary worth of a PR campaign or action through established metrics. Media value can differ depending on the metrics. It is important to mention that media value is a method to calculate the success of earned media, as advertising is paid media and owned media channels are not applicable. Media value can be a bit of a vanity metric, because it ties the value of your coverage back to the size of the readership. A large audience (quantity), however, is not what you’re aiming for— you should be aiming for the right audience (quality).

Media relations

Definition: Media relations refers to the act of building long-lasting, mutually beneficial relationships between PR professionals and the media. Journalists benefit from this relationship because it gives them access to story ideas and sources. Meanwhile, PR teams benefit from the media because it allows them to promote a story about their brand without paying high costs.


Definition:  Messaging refers to the underlying message you want to bring across, and which language and tone you want to use.

Like all great things, messaging should be as simple as possible. It is the two or three ideas you most want to convey about your brand. This messaging should be the undercurrent of everything you create. Think of Nike’s ‘Just do it’ or Apple’s ‘Think Different’ or Panadol’s “if it’s not Panadol, then it’s not the same as Panadol.”

It’s a clear and consistent message that your audience will remember you by.


Definition: A mission is a written statement that establishes the core purpose and values of an organization. It clearly states what a company does for customers and what it believes in. This statement is a powerful tool that helps guide teams towards accomplishing business goals.


Definition: Networking is the act of interacting and connecting with social or professional contacts.

In PR, networking is a way to build connections with press contacts. How can you make the most out of this interaction? A media or industry event is the perfect setting to make new connections with journalists or peers.


Definition: A wire service is a resource companies use to distribute press releases directly to journalists. Some well-known wire services include PR Newswire, Business Wire, Marketwire and PRWeb. Wire services are also known as press release feeds or press release distribution services.

Online newsroom

Definition: This term refers to a website, page, or section where an organization features their company news, media assets, clippings, and contact details.

Other words for online newsroom are press page, online press room, mediaroom, corporate newsroom, and online media centre.

Outbound PR

Definition: This term refers to traditional media relations; the process of reaching out the media and pushing messages in order to gain coverage.

Owned media

Definition: Owned media is the content you own that lives on your website or blog. It’s important to mention that channels like Medium and LinkedIn pulse are not owned media, since you’re publishing on someone else’s domain (and therefore building their domain authority!). You can use these platforms as outlets, but they are not considered “owned” media if you don’t have ownership over the channel. They are part of your shared media strategy.

Owned media is perhaps the most overlooked, but essential channel in any media relations strategy.

Paid media/Paid placements

Definition: Contrary to popular belief, paid media is less about fancy billboards or tv ads. Instead, it refers to social media advertising, sponsored content, search engine ads, and email marketing. Essentially, it’s about paying to reach an audience. On one hand, paying is important because you need those new audiences in order to keep your funnel full and meet your business goals. On the other hand, these one-sided, pushed messages can be perceived as inauthentic. Therefore, we don’t consider paid media the strongest channel for media relations.

PESO Model

Definition: Back in 2014, Spin Sucks’ Gini Dietrich described the relationship between different forms of media used in public relations and coined it the PESO model. It is a media model strategy that stands for Paid, Earned, Shared and Owned media. Its simplicity really helps when building out a solid communications strategy.


Definition: Persona is the word used to describe an ideal customer. In order to determine who your audience is, where they are, and what they are interested in, customer profiles are built.

Need help creating one? We got you covered. Here is a canvas that can guide you through building a communications strategy.

Personal branding

Definition: Personal branding is the practice of marketing people and their careers as brands. It consists of articulating a simple, clear statement of who you are and doing it consistently so that your audience or network can identify you in a crowd.


Definition: A pitch is a short, personalized message targeted to media outlets that underlines the value of your story and explains why it’s relevant to them or their audience. What makes a pitch successful is the ability to personalize it as much as possible and, at the same time, keep it under 400 words.

Press Release

Definition:  A press release is an announcement on behalf of your brand or organization to the media professionals and beyond. Ideally, a press release should provide enough information (in one or two pages maximum, with links to more detailed information) so that journalists can write a story about your news. Therefore, press releases should answer the “who,” “what,” “why,” and “where.” Other elements that should be included in your press release are contact details, about information, quotes, and media.

Press list

Definition: A press list is a document with details of specific journalists, bloggers, writers, editors and influencers who create content for outlets that reach your audience.

You can either buy a press list or make one yourself.


Definition: PRM stands for Public Relations Management and refers to the software that allows public relations teams and departments to manage relations with their press contacts.

PR Software

Definition:  PR software are tools that can help PR professionals with their work. Examples of PR software are newsroom solutions, monitoring software, PRM, media databases, trend forecasting, among many others.


Definition: Merriam Webster dictionary describes purpose as the reason why something is done. In a business context, purpose is “an organisation’s meaningful and enduring reason to exist that aligns with long-term financial performance, provides a clear context for daily decision making, and unifies and motivates relevant stakeholders”.

Purpose washing

Definition: Purpose-washing refers to presenting your brand as if it operates according to a larger purpose, when in reality it only operates to serve itself.


Definition: Reach refers to the total number of individuals who were able to see, read, or hear your content. This applies to traditional media and online channels as well.

Reactive PR – newsjacking

Definition: Reactive PR or newsjacking refers to the way a brand can capitalize on the popularity of a news story in order to be featured in media outlets, and eventually, increase brand awareness or sales. Think of newsjacking as riding out a popularity wave.

For example, let’s say there is a breaking story about a problem in your industry and your company offers a solution to it. Newsjacking would mean sending out a reactive pitch to media outlets, referencing the problem in the news and showing how your solution can fix it.

RSS feeds

Definition: RSS is a web feed that allows users to receive notifications and updates from websites they are subscribed to. These feeds can allow users to keep track of many different websites in a single news aggregator.

Reputation Management

Definition: Reputation management refers to the effort to influence how people think of a brand, company or person. The goal of reputation management is to influence the media to shape the public perception in a favorable light.

Return on investment (ROI)

Definition: Return on investment is a performance measure that evaluates the efficiency of a PR campaign or action. In PR, ROI is a measure to show how profitable a campaign is. This measurement can be divided into two categories. First, ROI can be measured in terms of economic gains like sales revenue. It can also be measured in terms of earned media that enhance a brand’s credibility, which can indirectly affect sales revenue.

Real-time Engagement 

This involves communicating and building relationship with customers through active, real-time interaction. Examples would be weekly #ChatSessions, texting conference attendees with live updates, posting special photos related to a holiday, or live streaming a big event.

Sentiment Analysis

Definition: Sentiment analysis in public relations is a tool used to measure what is being said about your brand, your competitors, and industry and if those comments are positive, negative or neutral. This information is vastly useful for PR teams as it allows them to assess whether their event, new product, speech, or interview hits the mark or falls flat. Sentiment is tracked by some monitoring tools.

We predict sentiment analysis will become an important skill for the future of PR.


Definition: SEO stands for search engine optimization. To put it simply, it is defined as the process of improving your site and content in order to increase its visibility for relevant searches. The more visible your site is in search rankings, the more likely you are to harness attention and attract leads and customers. We spoke to SEO expert Arnout Hellemans – who’s set up SEO strategies for brands like RBS, TNW and Leaseweb – for some top tips on how people in PR can leverage SEO. Read the full interview.

Shared media

Definition: Shared media is a categorization within the PESO model that refers to the channels where both you and your audience live – namely, social media. In social media channels, your audience and your community already talk about you, your competitors, and industry topics. Shared channels are great for distributing news to stakeholders; either as an article in your newsroom, or as press coverage.

Social monitoring

Definition: Social monitoring is the mechanism used to assess what is being said about brands on social media in particular. The comments measured can be either positive, negative or neutral.


Definition:  A spokesperson is an individual selected to represent and speak on behalf of a brand or organization. As the face and voice of your brand, a Spokesperson is the gatekeeper of your brand’s reputation.


Definition: The term stakeholder refers to the groups of people who are affected and affect the decisions made by an organization. These groups include internal publics such as employees and board members, and external publics like customers, communities, suppliers, and government.


Definition: To put it simply, storytelling is the art of sharing stories. This technique has utmost importance in the PR industry as it offers a channel through which a brand can communicate its values, influence perceptions, and motivate behaviors.  What makes storytelling different from simply sharing information is the emotional aspect. When storytelling is applied, audiences are exposed to an emotional experience, which makes stories memorable.

Style guide

Definition: A style guide is a set of standards and best practices for the writing of documents. This tool provides uniformity in style and formatting within a certain industry.

Thought leadership

Definition: Tim Prizeman, owner of PR agency Kelso consulting, defines thought leadership as ‘original ideas with important implications, backed by evidence, clearly expressed, publicly discussed, that strongly influence the opinion of others’.

This tactic can be used to build credibility for a brand or representatives of an organization.

The objective of thought leadership is to establish oneself as an expert by providing value to readers through helpful content. That way thought leaders will be their go-to source of information when needed.

Tier publications

Definition:  Tier publications refer to the classification of media outlets depending on their reach, impact, and audience. Here is a general classification of news outlets


Definition: TL;DR is a common acronym that stands for “Too Long; Didn’t Read”. It is usually used when something is too extensive and would require too much time to read.

Tone of voice

Definition: Tone of voice is how you communicate your brand’s value to others. It includes the choice of language, frequency, and vocabulary. These choices depend on the channel, the audience and the context of the communication.


Definition: Traction refers to the interest in your brand/client. Whether that’s measured in mentions by a media outlet or general buzz on social media – it means you found a great angle, story or message and are getting noticed. When an article that mentions your brand grows in reach and engagement, it is said to be gaining traction.

Trade Publication

Definition: Trade publications cover specific industries or sectors, such as construction, facility management, manufacturing, security, food and beverage, hospitality, technology and more. They publish business-to-business (B2B) content, such as company and/or industry news, thought leadership articles and industry trends, and may be print, digital or both. Picking this type of publication ensures that readers specifically interested in your story will see your placement.

Traditional media

Definition: Traditional media refers to offline communication channels such as radio, broadcast television, cable and satellite, print, and billboards. Remember newspapers?

Unique Selling Point/Proposition (USP)

Definition: A Unique Selling Point or Proposition, a.k.a. USP, is the marketing strategy used to differentiate a brand, products or services from the competition. This proposition will help you attract and retain customers as your brand begins to stand out in the marketplace.

Value proposition

Definition: A value proposition refers to the value a company promises to deliver to customers should they choose to buy their product. It is what makes them different from the competition and briefly explains what the company stands for, how it operates and why it deserves a user’s business.

Vanity metrics

Definition:  Vanity metrics are statistics that appear to show you how your content or campaign is performing, but in reality, they don’t. Another way to define it is by saying its things you can measure that simply don’t matter. They’re easily changed or manipulated, and they don’t bear a direct correlation with numbers that speak to business success.

Pageviews, for instance, don’t necessarily tell you that your target audience is finding your website; it could also mean that an army of strangers accidentally rolled onto your website. They’ll be leaving the page as soon as they can, or burying your customer support team under the craziest requests and questions you’ve ever read.


Definition: Viral is a term used to describe a piece of content – be it a video, an article, a meme – that rapidly spreads across the internet within a short period of time. What is common in viral content is the human emotion implied – be it humor, anger, sadness, or pure joy.


Definition: Vision is a written statement that defines what an organization does, and most importantly, what it aspires to achieve in the future. Your vision statement should be forward-looking, motivating and inspirational and be reflective of what your company stands for.


Definition:  Voice is the footprint of your brand’s communication. It is composed of the characteristics that make up a brand, including words and phrases that should be regularly used and those that should be avoided. If voice is your brand’s written personality, then tone is how you express that personality. It changes depending on context.


Definition: Whitepaper refers to a document, report, or guide that educates audiences by providing detailed information, analysis and research on a specific topic on which a company is an expert.

Word of Mouth (WOM)

Definition: The act of sharing news, communications, recommendations or referrals of a product or service by informal oral or written communication, from a satisfied customer/client/user to a prospective user/customer of that brand/good/service.[1]


Definition: Short for cross-post, which refers to posting something in more than one location. For example, you might cross-post Facebook message on Twitter.[2]

Yellow press

Definition:  A pejorative reference to journalism that features scandel-mongering, sensationalism, or other unethical or unprofessional practices by news media organisations or journalists. It has been loosely defined as “not quite libel”.[3]

Zero Cost Strategy

Definition: A decision or tactic that doesn’t have any $$ costs or expenses when you execute it; many guerilla marketing tactics are ‘zero cost’.[4]

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